Intelligence in perspectives of the Systems Psyche: Natural, Human and Artificial


AK Mukhopadhyay, 2017

To download a pdf, please click here*.



Mind and Intelligence are two important tools used by human psyche for its behavioral output. Human intelligence is a creation of open-ended intelligence in nature through evolutionary process. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a creation of human intelligence. Hybridization of physical science with biological materials and psychological functions is felt necessary for future progress of AI in an open-ended manner. Open-endedness is to be secured by acquiring the cascading integrity across the nested hierarchy of nature. Lessons for devising open-ended AI device could also be learnt from how the message in neural signals could reach the domain of consciousness by climbing up, and how the ‘will’ of consciousness is translated as neural signal by climbing down the ladder of cognition within the systems psyche.


Definition of Intelligence


There are about fifty odd definitions of intelligence. The definition, which would be useful for improvement of current state of affair in Artificial Intelligence (AI), could perhaps be as follows. Intelligence is the ability of the systems to choose the best from all available options. In absence of any option it is the ability to perform as best as it can, with open-endedness. The process of development and execution of intelligence are complex. Why complex? Because, it is not simple to understand, not simple to emulate and even difficult to simulate! It involves several operations layered hierarchically in a labyrinthine manner.

Three main domains of intelligence

Intelligence could be seen working in three main domains [1]. First, it could be as we see it in nature. This is Intelligence in Nature. No one knows who or what created this or how does it operate? Intelligence is there in nature as we observe its role in the process of biological evolution, in formation of organs such as compound eye, human brain etc. According to many sociologists, even the cultural evolution has been shaped at many points by intelligence in nature. Second, we are familiar with human intelligence. We all work with two psychological tools; our mind and intelligence. Human intelligence is far more complex because of socio-cultural influence in addition to its complex biological support system for psychological manifestations. Our ‘self’ is the driver of this intelligence while past memory and experience are its fodder. Most of the achievements as well as evils of mankind are primarily the products of human intelligence. Intelligence is so important in determining the behavior of the systems that in Bhagavat Gita, Lord Krishna has been seen to ask Arjuna, “Offer

me your mind and offer me your intelligence. Be sure, following this you would reside within me.” Third is Artificial Intelligence. AI is a creation of human intelligence by an inside-out phenomenon. What was happening inside the psyche has been discovered, understood and made to work, although partially, within an outside mechanical system. AI reflects ingenuity of human intelligence. Presently, AI is considered to be the religion of the scientists, while the robot is considered their God! We will revisit the statement in the concluding remarks of the paper.

Characteristics of the three intelligences

Nature’s intelligence works with a program, which is based on genuine open-ended algorithms. This is not specifically limited to work as a great optimizer for any particular problem/world. The program never runs out of steam of energy. It never exhausts its search space space or options [2]. Being nonspecifically open-ended both horizontally and vertically, it exhibits, while operating, explosion of novelty, complexity, solutions, as well as problems. Human intelligence, as it is a creation of intelligence in nature, shows graded vertical openness. Its vertical depth, although, is inexhaustible its manifestation is limited by cerebral cortical infrastructure. Horizontally it could be open to a few worlds while at the same time closed for many other worlds. Artificial intelligence, on the other hand, so far has no contribution from operation of ‘life’, and therefore cannot act beyond algorithmic specifications, cannot act in an open-ended manner when there is no option available. AI thus, in its present state, does not fulfill the second part of the definition. On the same vein, this fault-line in AI offers the scope and future direction for its growth.


The problem with open-endedness of a system is that the system remains in a fragile state with proneness of its cognitive apparatus to several kinds of errors. There are numerous slippery slopes from the open vortex. Sometimes it seems to be a quagmire situation! Supracortical consciousness and the Essence of the Multiversity (systems of multiple universes) are two open-ended theories in the context of human brain and the universe respectively, accommodates within intellectually comprehensible common worldview. Supracortically open brain rhythms with multiple universe(s) and multiple universe(s) reciprocate with supracortically open brain. The two might be twin theory, which have been pursued by the author since 1985. Future of AI could grow well under the umbrella of such theory. Open-endedness demands integrity of the systems across the cascade of hierarchically nested nature; classical integrity in synchrony with quantum rules, quantum integrity in synchrony with informational/phenomenal mechanics, informational/ phenomenal integrity in synchrony with inviolable rules of nascent nature/mother nature and finally in harmony with the rules of operational mechanics of consciousness. A difficult job with difficult tasks!

What the robotic intelligence in its present state has in its possession?

The robot has a complex signal system, hierarchically structured. Unlike human being or an organism, robot’s signal processing is remarkably error-free. It has memory of processed signal, the capacity of which is far more than human being. It can process signal much faster as compared to human being. It often performs complicated task faster (even often cozier) than human being. Since a robot does not need oxygen or water for survival, to perform a specific function it can be sent to a place where live human or animal cannot survive (e.g., in Mars).

What the Robotic Intelligence does not have in its possession?

The robotic intelligence does not have wide range of activity like human mind. Since it does not have a sense of ‘self’, a robot’s intelligence totally lacks episodic memory. Its memory of signals even cannot be equated with semantic memory of information as seen in a living organism or being. The robot does not have the ‘sense’ of the whole and its parts. It has no ability to manage unexpected uncertainty. It does not have choice outside algorithmic pre-specifications. It does not have the ability to learn from its past mistake. Automated AI-device might compete with human being for a job. However, a robotic device does not have any intention to do or not to do a job. It does not have any feelings and emotional response for the task it is engaged in and therefore it has no desire or will to improve on the job. Therefore, AI device cannot replace human being even for a specialized job.

Why is it so difficult for robotic intelligence to have what the psyche of a living being is capable of?

Intelligence is an outcome of interaction of operations of mind and self with active participation of stored memory and experience on the background. Some of the properties of mind

have been mechanized in robotic intelligence. The ability of context-based choice from different available options is a very preliminary property of self, which has been inculcated in AI. In robotic intelligence, full property of mind and self, as described earlier [3], are difficult to blossom. The reason is as follows. There is no ‘life’ and consciousness in AI systems. In systems psyche, the strength of mind comes from ‘life’ and fecundity of mind comes from consciousness. Self and ‘life’ in a living situation maintain a tangled hierarchy and are found indispensable for each other’s function. Emotion and feelings generate as outcome of operation of mind, information and life. However, the feelings of emotional reactions are experienced by the non-observable operator ‘self’, which has the ability to modulate it. Consciousness supervises all autonomous activities of mind, self and life. Therefore, full blossoming of intelligence could happen only in a live conscious situation.

To read the full article, please see the PDF*.


*© Author. Hyperlinked with permission from Author.