Brian D. Josephson
, in full Brian David Josephson
, (born January 4, 1940, Cardiff
, Glamorgan, Wales), British physicist whose
discovery of the Josephson effect while a 22-year-old graduate student won him a share (with Leo Esaki
and Ivar Giaever
) of the 1973 Nobel Prize
At Trinity College, Cambridge, Josephson studied mathematics before changing his focus to physics
. He received bachelor’s (1960), master’s (1964), and Ph.D. (1964) degrees there, publishing his first work while still an undergraduate; it dealt with certain aspects of the special theory of relativity
and the Mossbauer effect
. He was elected a fellow of Trinity College in 1962. He was a brilliant and assured student; one former lecturer recalled a special need for precision in any presentation to a class that included Josephson—otherwise, the student would confront the instructor politely after class and explain the mistake.
While still an undergraduate, Josephson became interested in superconductivity
, and he began to explore the properties of a junction between two superconductors that later came to be known as a Josephson junction.
Josephson extended earlier work in tunneling, the phenomenon by which electrons functioning as radiated waves can penetrate solids, done by Esaki and Giaever. He showed theoretically that tunneling
between two superconductors could have very special characteristics—e.g., flow across an insulating layer without the application of a voltage; if a voltage is applied, the current stops flowing and oscillates at high frequency. This was the Josephson effect
. Experimentation confirmed it, and its confirmation in turn reinforced the earlier BCS theory
of superconductor behaviour. Applying Josephson’s discoveries with superconductors, researchers at International Business Machines Corporation
had assembled by 1980 an experimental computer
switch structure, which would permit switching speeds from 10 to 100 times faster than those possible with conventional silicon
-based chips, increasing data processing
capabilities by a vast amount.
He went to the United States to be a research professor at the University of Illinois
in 1965–66 and in 1967 returned to Cambridge as assistant director of research. He was appointed reader in physics in 1972 and professor of physics in 1974. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society
A few years before the Nobel award, Josephson grew interested in the possible relevance of Eastern mysticism
to scientific understanding. In 1980 he and V.S. Ramachandran published their edited proceedings of a 1978 interdisciplinary symposium on consciousness
at Cambridge under the title Consciousness and the Physical World
. He became a controversial figure for his support of research into parapsychology
, cold fusion
, and homeopathy
. He retired from his professorship in 2007.